History IBM

History IBM was established on 15 June 1911 in Binghamton (USA) as a result of the merger maintained by Charles R. Flint of your company, the Tabulating Machine Company (founded by Herman Hollerith in 1896), with Computing Scale Corporation and International Time Recording Company. The company formed from the merger was called Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR), but the February 14, 1924 CTR changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), says that due to a kind of joke, as the leader sector company cash registers “National”. CTR companies from a wide range of manufactured products, from control systems to automated equipment used for cutting meat. They also manufacture equipment for the management of perforated cards, which would be a key element of future computers. Over time, CTR would focus on these teams and would set aside the manufacture of other products.During World War II, IBM began research in the field of computing. In 1944 he finished building the computer-Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, also known as Mark I. The Mark I was the first machine capable of performing complex calculations automatically, and was based on electromechanical switches. In 1952, IBM created the IBM 701, the first large computer based on vacuum tube technology, which replaced the electromechanical switches. In 1959, transistors began to replace vacuum tubes. One of the first computers based on transistors, IBM was the IBM 7090. Until that time, computers were used mainly in research institutions and government, but the performance improvement achieved with valves and especially with transistors, led some companies to start using it.The first storage system based on disk, called RAMAC, and FORTRAN programming language was created by IBM in 1957. The RAMAC is the predecessor of current hard disks and was composed of fifty disks internally. In the early 1960s, IBM began to change in a company dedicated exclusively to information technology, gradually leaving the manufacturing equipment for punch cards and typewriters. The latter started manufacturing the mid-1930s. On 7 April 1964, IBM released the System/360, the first computer architecture that enabled the exchange of software and peripherals between the various equipment components of the architecture, in contrast to what existed before, in which each team was a closed box incompatible with others. The order to create this architecture manager went directly from IBM at the time, Thomas J. Watson, Jr..The development of the System/360 was so expensive that virtually bankrupted IBM, but was such a success by launching new admissions and the leadership that IBM got its competitors will recoup all expenses. Such was the success of IBM in the mid-1960s that led to the company being investigated by monopoly. In fact, had a trial, which began in 1969, which was accused of trying to monopolize the market for general-purpose electronic devices, specifically the business computer market. The trial continued until 1983 and had great impact on company practices. During the 1970s, IBM continued to create new computing devices. In 1971 created the floppy and soon began marketing predecessors of the current barcode readers and ATMs. IBM building in Madrid (Spain) in 1989. In 1981, IBM created the IBM PC, which is the most successful personal computer of all time.This success was not expected by IBM, which created the IBM PC quickly and buying low-end components to other manufacturers, which had done so far, for the IBM PC was not absorbing part of the market’s most powerful computer IBM. In addition, the IBM PC operating system was not created by IBM, but was hired by Microsoft. Because it was created from scratch by IBM, began to appear shortly after computers compatible with IBM PCs from other manufacturers, and Microsoft began to grow by selling licenses for the IBM PC operating system to these other manufacturers. During the 1980s IBM forged four Nobel Laureate. On 19 January 1993, IBM announced a loss of about 8,000 million dollars, which was the record for losses in a company in the history of the United States. Part of these losses are due to the IBM PC market absorbed much more powerful computers and computer manufacturers that are compatible with the IBM PC each time had more market share.

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